There are many minorities in Syria, varying in religion and ethnicity. While this is supposed to create cultural wealth, diversity mismanagement and the absence of a citizenship state has allowed foreign intervention into Syria, often in the name of "protecting minorities". It has also caused serious human rights violations as well as sectarian and ethnic conflicts. Historical, political, legislative, economic and social factors have affected the situation of minorities, the intensity of violations committed against them and the extent of their integration. However, the main reasons for the deterioration of the situation of minorities and the increase of religious and ethnic tension in Syria are on the one hand due to the influence of religion and sectarianism on the structure of the state and, on the other hand, the dominance of an authoritarian regime of Arab nationalism ideology. The continuous interference and use of religion in politics and legislation, in addition to a lack of public liberties and political pluralism, played a big role in preventing the rise of a state based on equal, democratic citizenship that fosters religious and ethnic diversity and that is based on the principle of state neutrality. This led to a widespread protest as witnessed by the Syrian scene since 2011. This paper highlights the main aspects of citizenship state absence in Syria, especially the legal discrimination against non-Muslim and non-Arabs.
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